Additional Resources

American Council on Education. (2022, October 12). Joint Statement by Higher Education Associations on Importance of Clear, Fair Transcript Withholding Policies. https://www.acenet.edu/Documents/Joint-Statement-Transcript-Withholding-101222.pdf.

Arrojos, M. (2023, July 31). Here Are the States That Ban Colleges from Withholding Transcripts. Bestcolleges.com. https://www.bestcolleges.com/news/2022/05/19/states-that-ban-college-transcript-withholding-student-debt/.

Blumenstyk, G. (2022, February 2). The Edge: A ‘Blanket Approach’ Won’t Win Adults Back. The Chronicle of Higher Education [Subscription model]. https://www.chronicle.com/newsletter/the-edge/2022-02-02.

Blumenstyk, G. (2023, September 27). The Edge: Old debts keep millions from returning to college. Is this the solution?. The Chronicle of Higher Education [Subscription model]. https://www.chronicle.com/newsletter/the-edge/2023-09-27.

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (2022, September). Supervisory Highlights Student Loan Servicing Special Edition. Issue 27: Fall 2022. https://files.consumerfinance.gov/f/documents/cfpb_student-loan-servicing-supervisory-highlights-special-edition_report_2022-09.pdf.

Financial Value Transparency and Gainful Employment (GE), Financial Responsibility, Administrative Capability, Certification Procedures, Ability to Benefit (ATB).  Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education, Final regulations. 88 Fed. Reg. 74568 (2023, October 31). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2023-10-31/pdf/2023-22785.pdf.

Flaherty, C. (2023, March 1). College Holds Disproportionately Affect Students of Color. Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2023/03/02/survey-data-show-disparities-college-course-registration-holds.

Fulton, M. (2022, January). Placing a Hold on Postsecondary Student Success. Education Commission of the States. https://www.ecs.org/wp-content/uploads/Placing-a-Hold-on-Postsecondary-Student-Success.pdf.

Gardner, L. (2023, September 12). Solving the Stranded-Credits Problem. Chronicle of Higher Education. https://www.chronicle.com/featured/student-success/solving-standard-credits.

Jones, S., and Andrews, M. (2021, August 17). Stranded Credits: A Matter of Equity. Ithaka S+R. https://sr.ithaka.org/publications/stranded-credits-a-matter-of-equity/.

Lederman, D. (2022, May 3). Inside Higher Ed, The Key Podcast, Episode 79: Withholding Transcripts to Collect Student Debt. Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/audio/2022/04/28/ep79-withholding-transcripts-collect-student-debt.

Karon, J., Ward, J. D., Hill, C. B., and Kurzweil, M. (2020, October 5). Solving Stranded Credits: Assessing the Scope and Effects of Transcript Withholding on Students, States, and Institutions. Ithaka S+R. https://doi.org/10.18665/sr.313978 and related works at https://sr.ithaka.org/publications/solving-stranded-credits/.

Kilgore, W. and Sharp, K. (2022). “Stop! Do Not Pass Go! Institutional Practices Impeding Student Advancement: Part 1 An Exploratory Study”. American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. https://www.aacrao.org/docs/default-source/research-docs/institutional-practices-impeding-undergrad-student-advancement-(v8-final).pdf.

Knott, C. (2023, June 6). A ‘Modest but Important Step’ Against Transcript Withholding. Inside Higher Education. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/government/student-aid-policy/2023/06/06/education-department-looks-ban-transcript-withholding.

Kurzweil, M., Looker, E., and Pearce, B. (2023, September 27). After Successful Pilot, the Ohio College Comeback Compact Moves to Full Implementation. Ithaka S+R. https://sr.ithaka.org/blog/after-successful-pilot-the-ohio-college-comeback-compact-moves-to-full-implementation.

Marcus, J. (2021, March 22). Colleges are withholding transcripts and degrees from millions over unpaid bills. The Hechinger Report.  https://hechingerreport.org/colleges-are-withholding-transcripts-and-degrees-from-millions-over-unpaid-bills/.

National Association of College and University Business Officers. (2022, April 6). 2022 Joint Statement from AACRAO and NACUBO on the Use of Administrative-Process and Student-Success-Related Holds. https://www.nacubo.org/Press-Releases/2022/2022%20Joint%20Statement%20from%20AACRAO%20and%20NACUBO%20on%20the%20Use%20of%20Holds

Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education. March 18, 2022. The State of Administrative and Student Success Holds. Webinar. https://www.wiche.edu/events/nhbwebinar-the-state-of-administrative-and-student-success-holds/

OpenLMS eLearn Podcast, “How can we do ‘hold policies’ better to reduce learner friction?“, March 12, 2024. Watch on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oJnzoxlISRU.

Coffee with CAEL, “No More Holding Back: The Far-Reaching Impact of Administrative Holds on Adult Learner Success”, March 13, 2024. Read more…

AACRAO, NACUBO and WICHE Fireside Chat, “Federal Transcript Withholding Regulations“, January 26, 2024. Event was not recorded, but download the recap here.

WICHE No Holding Back Community of Practice facilitated working meeting on “Alternatives to Administrative Holds“, January 25, 2024. The event was not recorded, but the recap, list of resources and planning documents from the meeting are available for download.

AACRAO, NACUBO, Ithaka S+R and WICHE “Administrative Holds Policies and Practices” overview of seminal research on administrative holds policies and practices at the state, system, and institution-level, May 18, 2022.

Our Partners

The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) advances and supports a richly diverse, globally interconnected community of higher education professionals as well as the institutions, organizations, and learners they serve through its resources, leadership, and advocacy.

Ascendium Education Group is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization committed to helping people reach the education and career goals that matter to them. Ascendium invests in initiatives designed to increase the number of students from low-income backgrounds who complete postsecondary degrees, certificates and workforce training programs, with an emphasis on first-generation students, incarcerated adults, rural community members, students of color and veterans. Ascendium’s work identifies, validates and expands best practices to promote large-scale change at the institutional, system and state levels, with the intention of elevating opportunity for all. For more information, visit www.ascendiumphilanthropy.org.

Lumina Foundation is an independent, private foundation in Indianapolis committed to making opportunities for learning beyond high school available to all. We envision higher learning that is easy to navigate, addresses racial injustice, and meets the nation’s talent needs through a broad range of credentials. We are working toward a system that prepares people for informed citizenship and success in a global economy. Visit www.luminafoundation.org.